TABLE OF CONTENTS

/Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………….9
Important Terms to Know……………………………………………………………………….10
Chapter One: What is Autism?…………………………………………………………………17
Defining Autism………………………………………………………………………………………19
Myths about Autism Spectrum Disorder………………………………………………….21
History of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)…………………………………………….27
Chapter Two: Types of Autism………………………………………………………………….31
Types of Autism………………………………………………………………………………………33
Autistic Disorder………………………………………………………………………………………33
Asperger’s Syndrome………………………………………………………………………………..33
Pervasive Developmental Disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)…..34
Rett Syndrome………………………………………………………………………………………35
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD)…………………………………………………36
Chapter Three: Causes of Autism………………………………………………………………37
1. Genetic Factors…………………………………………………………………………………..38
2. Environmental Factors………………………………………………………………………..40
Prenatal Environment………………………………………………………………………………41
Perinatal Environment……………………………………………………………………………..45
Postnatal Environment…………………………………………………………………………….45
Chapter Four: Brain Development and ASD……………………………………………….47
Brain Overgrowth followed by Premature Arrest of Growth………………………49
Brain Connectivity…………………………………………………………………………………..50
Underactive Amygdala……………………………………………………………………………53
Chapter Five: Symptoms and Diagnosis………………………………………………….55
Signs and Symptoms……………………………………………………………………………..56
Diagnostic Criteria for ASD……………………………………………………………………..59
ICD-10 Diagnosis………………………………………………………………………………………59
DSM-5 Diagnosis………………………………………………………………………………………60
Developmental Milestones and Autism……………………………………………………62
1. Two Months………………………………………………………………………………………64
2. Four Months………………………………………………………………………………………65
3. Six Months………………………………………………………………………………………66
4. Nine Months………………………………………………………………………………………67
5. One Year………………………………………………………………………………………68
6. Two Years………………………………………………………………………………………69
7. Three Years………………………………………………………………………………………71
8. Four Years………………………………………………………………………………………73
9. Five Years………………………………………………………………………………………74
Co-occurring Conditions and Co-Morbidities……………………………………..76
Chapter Six: Treatment, Intervention and Therapies…………………………..79
Medical Treatments…………………………………………………………………………..81
Behavioral Interventions……………………………………………………………………82
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)…………………………………………………………83
Other Therapies…………………………………………………………………………………84
Chapter Seven: The Future of Autism Spectrum Disorder…………………..87
Future Directions for Research in ASD……………………………………………….89
The Necessity of Better Future Planning…………………………………………….90
Long-term Prognosis of People with ASD……………………………………………91
Index…………………………………………………………………………………………………93
Photo References………………………………………………………………………………103
References…………………………………………………………………………………………105